- Go to Preferences page and choose from different actions for taps or mouse clicks.
WordReference English-Spanish Dictionary © 2023:
|these adj||(plural of this)||estos/as adj|
|These shoes are my favourites.|
|Estos zapatos son mis favoritos.|
|these pron||(plural of this)||estos, estas pron|
|These are the ones I like best.|
|Estos son los que más me gustan.|
WordReference English-Spanish Dictionary © 2023:
|along these lines expr||(in this way)||de esta manera expr|
|along these lines,|
along similar lines expr
|([sth]: of this kind)||de esta manera expr|
one of these days adv
|(someday: an unspecified day in the future)||algún día loc adv|
|One day I hope to travel to South America. I would like to have children one day.|
|Algún día pienso viajar a Sudamérica. Me gustaría tener hijos algún día.|
|un día loc adv|
|Un día espero viajar a Sudamérica. Me gustaría tener hijos un día.|
|alguna vez loc adv|
|Alguna vez pienso viajar a Sudamérica. Me gustaría tener hijos alguna vez.|
|these days adv||(in modern times)||hoy en día loc adv|
|en estos días loc adv|
|en la actualidad loc adv|
|No one can afford to go to the movies these days. Times are tough these days.|
|Hoy en día nadie se puede permitir ir al cine.|
‘these‘ aparece también en las siguientes entradas:
In the English description:
it’s not these chocolates but those ones I like no son estos bombones los que me gustan sino aquellos; these ones over here estos/estas de aquí; estos/estas que están aquí; how are you getting on these days? ¿cómo le va últimamente?
In the past the standard spelling for [estos/estas] as pronouns was with an accent ([éstos/éstas]). Nowadays the [Real Academia Española] advises that the accented forms are only required where there might otherwise be confusion with the adjectives [estos/estas].
I’m looking for some sandals, can I try these? quiero unas sandalias, ¿puedo probarme estas?; what are these? ¿qué son estos?; these are my friends/my books estos son mis amigos/mis libros; I prefer these to those prefiero estos a aquellos
March 28, 2023
Spanish demonstratives—words like this, that, these and those—are used in nearly every conversation and are extremely helpful for Spanish learners.
Knowing them won’t just help you get around in Spain or Latin America without resorting to hand gestures and pointing, but they’re also key to understanding countless conversations.
In this post, you’ll learn all six Spanish demonstrative adjectives and pronouns and how to use them like a native speaker.
- What Are Demonstratives?
- Spanish Demonstratives: Adjectives vs. Pronouns
- Spanish Demonstrative Adjectives
- Spanish Demonstrative Pronouns
- Spanish Demonstrative Practice Quiz
This blog post is available as a convenient and portable PDF that you
can take anywhere.
Click here to get a copy. (Download)
What Are Demonstratives?
Demonstratives are words like “this,” “that” and “that over there.” And when plural, they become “these,” “those” and “those over there.”
Demonstratives are always either pronouns or adjectives.
A demonstrative is an adjective when it describes a noun. An example of an English demonstrative adjective would be:
That house is beautiful.
This dress is expensive.
A demonstrative pronoun replaces the noun and should only be used when it’s already clear what you’re talking about (either from what you’ve previously said or from a gesture, like pointing at something). For example:
That is beautiful.(Referring to the house)
This is expensive. (Referring to the dress)
Spanish Demonstratives: Adjectives vs. Pronouns
Understanding the difference between a demonstrative adjective and a demonstrative pronoun can be tricky, but here’s it put simply: the adjective describes a noun, whereas the pronoun replaces a noun.
There are six demonstratives in Spanish, and they can be used as either pronouns or adjectives just like the English demonstratives we saw above:
- Esto — this
- Estos — these
- Eso — that
- Esos — those
- Aquello — that over there
- Aquellos — those over there
Using the same examples we saw in English, a demonstrative adjective would be used in Spanish like this:
Esa casa es hermosa. — That house is beautiful.
Este vestido es caro. — This dress is expensive.
Since demonstrative pronouns replace the noun, these sentences would turn into:
Esaes hermosa. — That is beautiful. (Referring to the house).
Este es caro. — This is expensive. (Referring to the dress).
Spanish Demonstrative Adjectives
When using Spanish demonstratives as adjectives, they must follow the same rules normal adjectives follow—such as gender and pluralization agreement.
Take a look at each demonstrative in its masculine and feminine forms:
|That (over there)||Aquel||Aquella|
|Those (over there)||Aquellos||Aquellas|
Let’s look at some examples to understand when and how to use them.
¿Cuánto cuestanestas manzanas? — How much do these apples cost?
(The apples are very close)
¿Cuánto cuestanesas manzanas? — How much do those apples cost?
(The apples are nearby, but not within easy reach)
¿Cuánto cuestan aquellas manzanas? — How much do those apples over there cost?
(The apples are far away and you can’t reach them)
You’ll also need to change the demonstrative based on how long ago something happened. For example:
¡Este artículo es muy interesante! — This article is very interesting!
(The article is right in front of you on your laptop)
¿Has leído ese artículo que te envié? — Have you read that article that I sent you?
(It’s been a day or a few since you sent the article to your friend)
¿Te acuerdas de aquel artículo sobre los demonstrativos? — Do you remember that one article about demonstratives?
(You sent the article a month or more ago)
Enaquel tiempo era diferente. — Back then things were different.
(Something happened a very long time ago)
Spanish Demonstrative Pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns don’t come before nouns like adjectives because they entirely replace them. In English, we use them in sentences like “how much is this?” and “those are expensive.”
In Spanish, the masculine and feminine demonstrative pronouns are the same as the adjectives we’ve already seen, but with the addition of a neutral pronoun.
These are great for when you have no idea what the gender of the noun you’re referring to is.
|That (over there)||Aquel||Aquella||Aquello|
|Those (over there)||Aquellos||Aquellas|
(Note that if you come across accent marks on these pronouns, that’s because historically, they included them. And sometimes, the accent marks can clarify that the demonstrative is acting as a pronoun and not an adjective if there’s any chance of confusion.)
Let’s look at some common examples:
Dame uno de estos, por favor. — Give me one of these please.
¿Qué es eso? — What is that?
No, esos no. Quiero aquellos de ahí. — No, not those.I want theones way over there!
When you need to use an adjective with a neutral pronoun, the adjective will be masculine. For example:
Eso es bueno. — That is good.
As with the adjective forms, demonstrative pronouns can describe immaterial things. Take a look at the following situations:
Eso me suena. — That sounds familiar to me. (i.e. a song, idea, invention, etc.)
Esto es una locura. — This is craziness.
Aquello es bonito. — That thing over there is pretty.
Some very common expressions make use of these pronouns, too:
- ¡Eso! — That’s it! (Someone’s given you the right answer.)
- ¿Como va eso? ¿Estás avanzando? — How is that going? Are you making progress?(At work)
- Por eso/ aquello — That’s why
- A eso de las 15:00 — At about 3 p.m.
- Aparte de eso — Besides that
- ¿Y eso qué? — So what?
- ¿De dónde sacaste eso? — Where did you get that (idea) from?
- Dicho esto — That (being) said
- Con esto en mente — With this in mind
- Esto sí es vida — This really is the life
- Todo esto y más — All this and more
- Aquello se está animando — Things are getting lively
Demonstratives are so important that you’ll hear them in almost every conversation, whether as adjectives, pronouns or in phrases like those above.
One of the best ways to master Spanish concepts like demonstratives is by using a learning program that focuses on immersion and learning in context, like FluentU.
FluentU uses authentic Spanish videos (like music videos, inspiring talks and movie trailers) with interactive subtitles to help you learn grammar concepts and vocabulary the way native speakers use them.
You can either access the program via the website or the iOS andAndroid apps.
Spanish Demonstrative Practice Quiz
Now that you’ve learned everything you need about Spanish demonstratives, it’s time to put theory into practice!
Complete the Spanish sentence by choosing the right demonstrative based on the English sentence. Remember to ensure it agrees with the noun’s gender and quantity!
1. ___ chica habla español con fluidez. — That girl over there speaks Spanish fluently.
2. ___sabe mal. — This (singular, feminine) tastes bad.
3. ___ me parece bien. — That (singular, neutral) sounds good to me.
4. Quisiera ___ tres bebidas, por favor. — I would like these three drinks, please.
5. ___edificio es demasiado peligroso. — That building is too dangerous.
6. ___niño está enfermo. — This boy is sick.
7.No quiero ___, quiero ___. — I don’t want those (masculine), I want those over there (masculine).
8.___ país es mi favorito. — This country is my favorite.
9. ¿Escuchaste ___ canción que te mandé? — Did you listen to that song [a few days ago] that I sent you?
10.Me gusta más ___. — I like this one [singular, masculine] the best.
1.Aquella chica habla español con fluidez.
2.Esta sabe mal.
3.Eso me parece bien.
4. Quisiera estas tres bebidas, por favor.
5.Ese edificio es demasiado peligroso.
6. Este niño está enfermo.
7. No quiero esos, quiero aquellos.
8. Este país es mi favorito.
9. ¿Escuchaste esa canción que te mandé?
10. Me gusta más este.
That’s it for our complete roundup of Spanish demonstratives.
With these six simple words under your belt, you’ll find understanding Spanish sentences much easier.
This blog post is available as a convenient and portable PDF that you
can take anywhere.
Click here to get a copy. (Download)
Put on your learning cap, grab a cup of coffee, and get comfy because we’re about to cover the 1,000 most common Spanish words for beginners! There are nearly a million words in the Spanish language, but luckily you don’t need to memorize them all to speak Spanish.
We’ve picked out the 1,000 most common Spanish words and created this categorized vocabulary guide so that you can effectively communicate in Spanish—even as a beginner!
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For any Spanish beginner, it’s always important to know the essentials. These are must-know words and phrases if you’ve just started learning. Take a look at these first words in our guide of the 1,000 most common Spanish words.
- sí — yes
- no — no
- ¿entiende(s)? — do you understand?
- no entiendo — i don’t understand
- no (lo) sé — i don’t know
- no tengo ni idea — i have no idea
- no hablo español — i don’t speak spanish
- estoy perdido(a) — i’m lost
Introducing yourself is always one of the best ways to start speaking Spanish! That’s why we included these essential conversation starters into our list of the 1,000 most common Spanish words.
- me llamo — my name is
- mi nombre es — my name is
- soy… — i’m…
- ¿cómo te llamas? — what is your name?
- (yo) soy de… — i am from…
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- ¿cómo está usted? — how are you? (formal)
- ¿cómo estás? — how are you? (informal)
- ¿qué tal? — how are you? (informal) / what’s up?
- ¿cómo te va? — how ‘s it going?
- ¿qué haces? — what are you doing?
- ¿qué pasa? — what ‘s happening?
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These common Spanish words and versatile replies make for an easy response to dozens of questions!
- ¿y tú? — and you?
- muy bien — very well
- así, así — so, so
- mal — bad
- como siempre — as always
- ¡de nada! — you’re welcome! / no problem!
- por favor — please
- ¡perdon! — excuse me!
- ¡disculpe! — excuse me!
- ¡lo siento! — sorry!
- gracias — thank you
- salud — bless you
- ¿qué…? — what?
- ¿quién…? — who?
- ¿cuándo…? — when?
- ¿dónde…? — where?
- ¿por qué…? — why?
- ¿cuál? — which?
- ¿cómo…? — how?
- Yo — I
- tú (informal) — you
- usted (formal) — you
- él — he
- ella — she
- nosotros/nosotras — we
- ustedes — you all
- ellos — they
- ellas(females) — they
- hola — hello
- buenos días — good morning
- buenas tardes — good afternoon
- buenas noches — good evening / good night
Talking About Age
- (yo) tengo … años — i am … years old.
- old — viejo/a
- young — joven
- middle-aged — de mediana edad
- youthful — juvenil
- nuevo/a – new
- ¡feliz cumpleaños! — happy birthday!
- ¡felicitaciones! — congratulations!
- ¡diviértete! — have fun!
- ¡buen provecho! — bon appetit!
- ¡bienvenidos! / ¡bienvenidas! — welcome!
- salud! — cheers!
- adiós — goodbye
- chao — goodbye
- hasta luego — see you later (most likely today)
- hasta mañana — see you tomorrow
- nos vemos — see you (informal)
- ¡cuídate mucho! — take care!
- ¡tenga un buen día! — have a nice day!
- ¡hasta luego! — see you soon!
- ¡buen viaje! — have a good trip!
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No list of the 1,000 most common Spanish words would be complete without time words.
Days of the Week
- Domingo — Sunday
- Lunes — Monday
- Martes — Tuesday
- Miércoles — Wednesday
- Jueves — Thursday
- Viernes — Friday
- Sabado — Saturday
Months of the Year
- Enero — January
- Febrero — February
- Marzo — March
- Abril — April
- Mayo — May
- Junio — June
- Julio — July
- Agosto — August
- Septiembre — September
- Octubre — October
- Noviembre — November
- Diciembre — December
Other Time Words
- anteayer — day before yesterday
- ayer — yesterday
- el año — year
- el día — day
- el mes — month
- el siglo — century
- la hora — hour
- hoy — today
- la semana — week
- madrugada — dawn, very early in the morning
- mañana — tomorrow
- mañana — morning
- medianoche — midnight
- mediodia — noon
- el minuto — minute
- la noche — night
- el pasado mañana — day after tomorrow
- los segundos — seconds
- la tarde — afternoon
This Spanish vocab helps you talk about your relatives.
- el padre — father
- el papá — dad
- la madre — mother
- la mamá — mom
- el hermano — brother
- la hermana — sister
- el hijo — son
- la hija — daughter
- la familia cercana — close family
- el abuelo — grandfather
- la abuela — grandmother
- el bisabuelo — great-grandfather
- la bisabuela — great-grandmother
- la nieta — granddaughter
- el nieto — grandson
- el tío — uncle
- la tía — aunt
- el tío abuelo — great-uncle
- la tía abuela — great-aunt
- el primo — cousin (male)
- la prima — cousin (female)
- mis parientes — my relatives
- abrazar — to hug
- amar — to love
- reír — to laugh
- perdonar — to forgive
- empezar — to start
- seguir — to follow
- abrir — to open
- buscar — to search
- cantar — to sing
- cerrar — to close
- destruir — to destroy
- dormir — to sleep
- encontrar — to find
- esconder — to hide
- esperar — to wait
- faltar — to miss
- hacer — to do
- intentar — to try
- llamar — to call
- llevar — to take
- llorar — to cry
- luchar — to fight
- mentir — to lie
- odiar — to hate
- recibir — to receive
- reconocer — to recognize
- robar — to steal
- salvar — to save
- sonreír — to smile
- soñar — to dream
- tomar — to take
- Vivir — to live
The Five Senses
Spice up your Spanish with these common words for your senses.
- tranquilo/a – quiet
- ruidoso/a – loud
- gritar — to shout
- escuchar — to hear
- silencio — silence
- alto — loud
- bajo — soft
- ensordecedor — deafening
- agudo — sharp, high-pitched
- grave — low-pitched
- melodioso — melodious
- armónico — harmonic
- zumbido — buzz
- sordo — deaf
- duro de oíd — hard of hearing
- oído fino — acute hearing
- problemas de audición — hearing-impaired
- fuera de alcance — out of earshot
- ver — to see
- mirar — to look
- de colores— colorful
- blanco y negro — black and white
- brillante — bright
- apagado — dim
- claro — light
- oscuro — dark
- ciego — blind
- mirar fijamente — to stare
- echar un vistazo — to glance
- bizquear — to squint
- guiñar — to wink
- parpadear — to blink
- tocar — to touch
- agarrar — to grab
- suave — soft
- áspero(a) — rough
- liso(a) — smooth
- rugoso(a) — wrinkled
- pegajoso(a) — sticky
- punzante — sharp
- sedoso(a) — silky
- esponjoso(a) — spongy
- mullido(a) — fluffy
- hormigueo — tingle
- entumecido(a) — numb
- rozar — to touch gently
- acariciar — to caress
- agarrar — to grab
- olor — smell
- el perfume — scent
- la fragancia — fragrance
- el hedor — stench
- apestoso(a) — smelly
- fresco(a) — fresh
- acre — pungent
- húmedo(a) — musty
- podrido(a) — rotten
- ahumado(a) — smoky
- apestar — to stink
- gusto —- taste
- sabor — flavor
- probar — try
- sabroso — está sabrosa
- delicioso — delicious
- perfecto — perfect
- apetitoso — appetizing
- dulce — sweet
- dulzón — sugary
- soso — bland
- abierto/a – open
- ancho/a – wide
- estrecho/a – narrow
- lejano/a – far
- cercano/a – close
Personality and Emotions
- alegre – joyful
- gracioso/a – funny, amusing
- serio/a – serious
- tímido/a – shy
- valiente – brave
- loco/a – crazy
- contento(a) — content
- feliz — happy
- preocupado(a) — worried
- nervioso(a) — nervous
- tranquilo(a) — tranquil
- calmado(a) — calm
- emocionado(a) — excited
- largo/a — long
- corto/a — short
- liso/a — straight
- rizado/a — curly
- ondulado/a — wavy
- castaño/a — brown
- rubio/a — blonde
- pelirrojo/a — red
- negro/a — black
- canoso/a — grey
- abundante — thick
- fino/a — thin
- escalado/a — layered
- teñido/a — dyed
- saludable — healthy
- claro/a — light
- encrespado/a — frizzy
- brillante — shiny
- calvo/a — bald
- grande – big
- pequeño/a – small
- enorme – huge
- delgado/a — lean
- esbelto/a — slender
- flaco/a — skinny
- menudo/a — petite
- alto/a — tall
- bajo/a — short
- hermoso/a — beautiful
- guapo/a — handsome
- feo/a — ugly
- adorable — cute
- bonita — pretty
- impresionante — stunning
- poco atractivo/a — plain
- promedio/a — average
- atractivo/a — attractive
- negro — black
- marrón / café — brown
- gris — grey
- blanco — white
- amarillo — yellow
- anaranjado — orange
- rojo — red
- rosado — pink
- morado / púrpura — purple
- azul — blue
- verde — green
Arts and Crafts
- colorear — to color
- construir — to construct
- cortar — to cut
- coser — to sew
- dibujar — to draw
- pintar — to paint
- cero — zero
- uno — one
- dos — two
- tres — three
- cuatro — four
- cinco — five
- seis — six
- siete — seven
- ocho — eight
- nueve — nine
- diez — ten
This animal vocab will help you talk about animals both on land and in the ocean!
- el gato — cat
- el perro — dog
- el conejo — rabbit
- el pollo — chicken
- la gallina — hen
- el gallo — rooster
- la vaca — cow
- el toro — bull
- la oveja — sheep
- el caballo — horse
- el cerdo — pig
- la cabra — goat
- el burro — donkey
- el ratón — mouse
- el ciervo — deer
- el mapache — raccoon
- la ardilla -— squirrel
- el búho — owl
- el zorro — fox
- el lobo — wolf
- el oso — bear
- el cangrejo — crab
- la medusa — jellyfish
- el delfín — dolphin
- la ballena — whale
- el tiburón — shark
- la foca — seal
- el lobo marino — sea lion
- la morsa — walrus
- el pingüino — penguin
- el viaje — trip
- el equipaje — bags
- la salida — exit
- la llegada — arrival
- los documentos de identidad — id papers
- el billete de avión — boarding pass
- el hotel — hotel
- el permiso de conducir — driver’s license
- echar gasolina — to get gas
- viajar — to travel
- volver — to return
- ir — to go
- salir — to leave
- parar — to stop
- partir — to depart
- porter(a) — doorman
- hostia — hostess
- botones — bellhop
- anfitriona— airline hostess
- el avión — airplane
- el coche — car
- la bicicleta — bicycle
- la motocicleta — motorcycle
- el tren — train
- el metro/subte — subway
- el autobús — bus
- el barco — ship
- taxista — taxi driver
- revisor(a) — train conductor
- dependiente de gas — gas station attendant
- conductor(a) — driver, chauffeur
- camionero(a) — truck driver
- el sol — the sun
- las nubes — the clouds
- la niebla — the fog
- la neblina — the mist
- la lluvia — the rain
- la llovizna — the drizzle
- la tormenta — the storm
- el tornado — the tornado
- el trueno — the thunder
- el relámpago — the lightning strike
- el rayo — the lightning bolt
- el viento — the wind
- la brisa — the breeze
- el granizo — the hail
- el hielo — the ice
- la nieve — the snow
- el calor — the heat
- el frío — the cold
- la humedad — the humidity
- la temperatura — the temperature
- el pronóstico — the forecast
- llover — to rain
- lloviznar — to drizzle
- diluviar — to pour down
- granizar — to hail
- nevar — to snow
- el invierno — winter
- la primavera — spring
- el verano — summer
- el otoño — fall
- carta de motivación — cover letter
- el cv — resume
- la firma — firm
- el negocio — business
- la compañía — company
- el jefe — boss
- el empleado — employee
- trabajar — to work
- negociar — to negotiate
- consultor(a) — consultant
- dueño(a) — owner
- abogado(a) — lawyer
- arquitecto(a) — architect
- bombero(a) — fireman
- campesino(a) — farm worker
- carpintero(a) — carpenter
- cartero(a) — postal worker
- casero(a) — landlord
- científico(a) — scientist
- cocinero(a) — cook, chef
- consejero (a) — counselor
- constructor (a) — construction worker
- contador(a) — accountant/bookkeeper
- doméstico(a) — maid
- detective — detective
- director, revisor, redactor(a) — editor
- electricista — electrician
- escritor / autor(a) — writer / author
- vaquero, tropero(a) — cowboy
- manejador(a) — manager
- granjero(a) — farmer
- ingeniero(a) — engineer
- jardinero(a) — gardener
- jefe — boss
- juez — judge
- lavandero(a) — laundry person
- marinero(a) — merchant marine
- mecánico (a) — mechanic
- camarero(a) — waiter
- padre — priest
- panadero(a) — baker
- pastor(a) — pastor/minister
- periodista — reporter/journalist
- pescador(a) — fisherman
- pintor(a) — painter
- plomero(a) — plumber
- Policía — policeman
- programador(a) — computer programmer
- dueño(a) — owner
- químico(a) — chemist
- ranchero(a) — rancher
- rebuscador(a) — researcher
- reparador(a) — repairman
- técnico(a) de laboratorio — lab technician
- trabajador(a) de fábrica — factory worker
- veterinario(a) — veterinarian
- ir al gimnasio — go to the gym
- ir de caminata — go hiking
- levantar pesas — lift weight
- mantenerse en forma — to stay in shape
- practicar — to practice
- nadar — to swim
- el yoga — yoga
- el fútbol — soccer
- el fútbol americano — football
- el béisbol — baseball
- el baloncesto — basketball
- el golf — golf
- el hockey — hockey
- el tenis — tennis
- el voleibol — volleyball
- luchar — to wrestle/to fight
- correr — to run
- esquiar — to ski
- el partido — game/match
- la carrera — race
- el torneo — tournament
- patear — to kick
- saltar — to jump
- parar — to stop/to block
- balancear — to swing
- servir — to serve
- rematar — to spike
- pegar — to hit
- driblar — to dribble
- tirar — to throw
- agarrar — to catch
- ganar — to win
- perder — to lose
- empatar — to tie
- caminar — to walk
- bailar — to dance
- jugar — to play
- competir — to compete
Time to Eat!
These common Spanish words for food will leave you hungry for more Spanish!
Food and Drink
- la comida — food
- las bebidas — drinks
- las verduras — vegetables
- las frutas — fruits
- cocinar — to cook
- tengo hambre — i’m hungry
- tengo sed — i’m thirsty
- la res — beef
- el pollo — chicken
- la gallina — chicken
- el cordero — lamb
- la barbacoa — grilled
- el cerdo — pork
- el perrito caliente — hot dog
- el jamón — ham
- la hamburguesa — hamburger
- el tocino — bacon
- el pescado — fish
- la zanahoria — carrot
- la lechuga — lettuce
- el tomate — tomato
- la maíz — corn
- la papa — potato
- la patata — potato
- las papas — french fries
- las patatas fritas — french fries
- el brocoli — broccoli
- la espinaca — spinach
- la cebolla — onion
- la col — cabbage
- la ensalada — salad
- la aceituna — olive
- las calabacitas — squash
- el hongo — mushroom
- el pepino — cucumber
- la manzana — apple
- la pera — pear
- la fresa — strawberry
- la frambuesa — raspberry
- la zarzamora — blackberry
- el arándano — blueberry
- el arándano rojo — cranberry
- la naranja — orange
- la mandarina — tangerine
- la toronja — grapefruit
- el limón — lemon
- la lima — lime
- el plátano — banana
- la piña — pineapple
- el coco — coconut
- el mango — mango
- la papaya — papaya
- la cerveza — beer
- el refresco — pop, soft drink
- el té — tea
- el té helado — iced tea
- el café — coffee
- la leche — milk
- el agua — water
- el jugo — juice
- el batido — milkshake
- el chocolate — chocolate
- los dulces — candy
- el pastel — cake
- las galletas — cookies
- el helado — ice cream
- el churros con chocolate — chocolate churros
- el basque cheesecake — cheesecake
- el plato — plate
- el plato hondo — bowl
- el vaso — glass
- la copa — cup
- el tenedor — fork
- la cuchara — spoon
- el cuchillo — knife
- la servilleta — napkin
- dulce — sweet
- salado(a) — savory
- rico(a) — delicious
- el desayuno — breakfast
- el almuerzo — lunch
- la cena — dinner
- el tentempié — snack
- la prenda, la ropa — clothes
- los zapatos — shoes
- el pantalón — pants
- la camiseta / la camisa — shirt
- la chaqueta — jacket
- la falda — skirt
- el suéter — sweater
- el vestido — dress
Holidays and Parties
- la navidad — christmas
- el año nuevo— new year
- la pascua — easter
- el día de san valentín — valentine’s day
- el día de la madre — mother’s day
- el día del padre — father’s day
- el día de la independencia — independence day
- el día de acción de gracias — thanksgiving
- el cumpleaños — birthday
- la fiesta — the party
- la boda — the wedding
Parts of the Body
- el cuerpo humano — the human body
- la cabeza — head
- el pecho — chest
- el oído / la oreja — ear
- el ojo — eye
- la cara — face
- la mano — hand
- la boca — mouth
- el pie — foot
- la espalda — back
- el pelo — hair
- el codo — elbow
- el dedo — finger
- la pantorrilla — calf
- la pierna — leg
- la muñeca — wrist
- el talón — heel
- el brazo — arm
- el cuello — neck
- el tobillo — ankle
- la frente — forehead
- el muslo — thigh
- la barba — beard
- el bigote — mustache
- la lengua — tongue
- el dedo del pie — toe
- la cintura — waist
- la cadera — hip
- las nalgas — buttocks
- el pulgar — thumb
- la rodilla — knee
- la nariz — nose
- la mejilla, el cachete — cheek
- los labios — lips
- el hombro — shoulder
- la barbilla, el mentón — chin
- las cejas — eyebrows
- las pestañas — eyelashes
- el ombligo — belly button
- la piel — skin
- el vientre — stomach
- la garganta — throat
- los dientes/las muelas — teeth
Connect your Spanish ideas with these transition words and your sentences will begin to flow with ease!
Time and Place
- al principio — at the beginning
- en primer lugar — firstly
- para comenzar — to start
- antes — before
- después — after
- a continuación — in continuation
- mientras tanto — meanwhile
- al final — at the end
Add an Idea
- además — additionally
- aparte de — apart from
- asimismo — at the same time
- también — also
- de igual manera — in the same way
- pero — but
- sin embargo — however
- no obstante — nevertheless
- por otro lado — on the other hand
- aunque — even though
- a pesar de — despite
Wherever you are, you’ll want to be able to talk about your location in Spanish.
- dentro de — inside of
- encima de/sobre — on top of
- debajo de — underneath of
- delante de — in front of
- detrás de — behind
- entre — between
- en — in/on/at
- dentro de — inside of
- fuera de — outside of
- arriba de — above
- en medio de — in the middle of
- cerca de — close to
- lejos de — far from
- al lado de — next to
- alrededor de — around
- a la izquierda de — to the left of
- a la derecha de — to the right of
- estar — to be
- colocar — to place
- ubicar — to position
- poner — to put
- situar — to place
Here and There
- aquí, acá — here
- ahí — there
- allí — there
- allá — over there
- el este — east
- el norte — north
- el oeste — west
- el sur — south
Check out this classroom vocabulary for some of the 1,000 most common Spanish words.
- la clase — classroom
- el aula — classroom
- la pizarra — blackboard
- el pizarrón — whiteboard
- la tiza — chalk
- el marcador — marker
- el borrador — eraser
- el escritorio — desk
- el pupitre — desk
- la silla — chair
- la mochila — backpack
- el libro — book
- el cuaderno — notebook
- el papel — paper
- el lápiz — pencil
- los lápices de colores — coloring pencils
- el sacapuntas — pencil sharpener
- el bolígrafo — pen
- la goma — eraser
- las tijeras — scissors
- la cola/el pegamento — glue
- la regla — ruler
- la grapadora — stapler
- el estuche — pencil case
- estudiar — to study
- repasar — to revise
- aprender — to learn
- saber — to know
- hacer los deberes — to do homework
- hacer la tarea — to do homework
- leer — to read
- escribir — to write
- hablar — to speak
- decir — to say
- preguntar — to ask
- charlar — to chat
- dictar — to dictate
- deletrear — to spell
- contar — to count
- faltar — to miss school
- aprobar — to pass a subject/a test
- reprobar— to fail a subject/a test
- prestar — to lend
- tomar prestado — to borrow
- traer — to bring
- enseñar — to teach
- mostrar — to show
- nombrar — to name
- ayudar — to help
Places in a School
- la escuela — school
- el colegio — school
- el gimnasio — gym
- el patio — playground
- el baño — restroom
- el pasillo — hallway
- la biblioteca — library
- la oficina — office
- la sala de profesores — staff room
- el comedor — cafeteria
- la cocina — kitchen
- la enfermería — infirmary
- el laboratorio — lab
People in a School
- maestro/a — teacher (primary school)
- profesor/a — teacher (secondary school)
- entrenador/a — coach
- enfermero/a — nurse
- director/a — principal
- alumno/a — student
- estudiante — student
More School Words
- el almuerzo — lunch
- el recreo — recess
- las vacaciones — vacations
- la comida — food
- el casillero — locker
- la materia — subject
- la matemática — math
- la biología — biology
- la química — chemistry
- la física — physics
- la educación física — physical education
- la historia — history
- la literatura — literature
- la prueba — test
- el examen — exam
- la nota — grade
- la calificación — grade
- un ordenador (Spain) — a computer
- una computadora (Latin America) — a computer
- una tableta — a tablet
- una impresora — a printer
- el ratón — the mouse
- apagar — to turn on
- encender — to turn off
- el disco duro — the hard drive
- el teclado — the keyboard
- la tecla — the key
- los auriculares — headphones
- el micrófono — the mic
- la pantalla — the screen
- la cámara — the camera
- los altavoces — the speakers
- una aplicación — an app
- base de datos — database
- las redes sociales — social networks
- el enlace — the link
- subir — to upload
- guardar — to save
- borrar — to delete
- hacer click — to click
- bajar/descargar — to download
- buscar en Google — search on Google
- pirata informático — hacker
- contraseña — password
Home Sweet Home!
Household vocabulary is an important part of the 1,000 most common Spanish words so that you can talk about the place where you spend most of your time.
- la casa — house, home
- el hogar — home
- la habitación — bedroom
- el cuarto — bedroom
- el dormitorio — bedroom
- la sala — living room
- el comedor — dining room
- la cocina — kitchen
- el baño — bathroom
- el pasillo — hallway
- el jardín — yard, garden
- el garaje — garage
- cómodo/a — comfortable
- acogedor — cozy
- desordenado/a — messy
- limpio/a — clean
- la pasta de dientes — toothpaste
- el cepillo de dientes — toothbrush
- el jabón — soap
- el secador de pelo — hair dryer
- el champú — shampoo
- el cepillo — brush
- el papel higiénico — toilet paper
- la toalla — towel
- el agua jabonosa — soapy water
- la bolsa de basura — trash bag
- el cubo de basura — trash can
- el cesto de la ropa sucia — laundry basket
- la navaja de afeitar — razor
- la maquinilla de afeitar eléctrica — electric razor
- la crema de afeitar — shaving cream
- el enjuague bucal — mouthwash
- el cepillo de pelo — hair brush
- el peine — comb
- el limpiador facial — facial cleanser
- la balanza— scale
- el pañuelo de papel — tissue
- los juguetes de baño — bath toys
- la alfombra de baño — bath mat
- la ducha — shower
- la bañera — bathtub
- el fregadero — sink
- el inodoro — toilet
- el grifo — faucet
- el espejo — mirror
- peinar — to comb
- cocinar — to cook
- comer — to eat
- adobar — to marinate
- sazonar — to season
- lavar — to wash
- cortar — to cut
- pelar — to peel
- picar — to chop
- moler — to grind
- incorporar — to add
- mezclar — to mix
- catir — to whisk
- licuar — to blend
- combinar — to combine
- freír — to fry
- hervir — to boil
- colar — to strain
- cocer — to cook
- hornear — to bake
- asar — to grill / roast
- saltear — to saute
- preparar — to prepare
- descongelar — to defrost
- quemar — to burn
- tostar — to toast
- derretir — to melt
- rodajear — to slice
- calentar — to warm up / heat
- rellenar — to fill / stuff
- lavar — to wash
- limpiar — to clean
- desayunar — to have breakfast
- cenar — to have dinner
- la puerta — the door
- el armario — the wardrobe
- la estantería — the shelf
- la ventana — the window
- las cortinas — the curtains
- el escritorio — the desk
- el ordenador — the computer
- la cama — the bed
- el cojín — the pillow
- el edredón — the quilt
- las sábanas — the bedding
- la almohada — the pillowcase
- la lámpara — the lamp
- la mesilla de noche — the night table or nightstand
- el espejo — the mirror
- el cuadro — the painting
- la puerta — the door
- el armario — the wardrobe
- la estantería — the shelf
- la ventana — the window
- las cortinas — the curtains
- la mesa — the table
- la silla — the chair
- el sillón — armchair
- la alfombra — the carpet or rug
- la lámpara — the lamp
- la planta — the plant
- las flores — the flowers
- la chimenea — the chimney
- el suelo — the ground
- el techo — the ceiling
- dependiente/a — shop assistant
- caja — checkout
- rebajas — sales
- ocasión — bargain
- recibo — receipt
- probadores — dressing room
- tamaño — size
- tienda de ropa — clothing store
- zapatería — shoe store
- librería — bookstore
- almacén — department store
- supermercado — supermarket
- joyería — jeweler
- juguetería — toy store
- almacenero(a) — grocer
- comerciante (a) — merchant
- tendero(a) — shopkeeper
- dependiente — clerk
- cajero(a) — cashier
Talk About Your Health in Spanish
If you ever get sick abroad or have an emergency in a Spanish-speaking country, these health words will come in handy! Health vocabulary is an essential part of the 1,000 most common Spanish words.
- los cuidados de la salud — healthcare
- el dentista — dentist
- el doctor/a — doctor
- el enfermero/a — nurse
- el médico general — general practitioner
- el médico de cabecera — general practitioner
- el médico especialista — specialist
- el/la nutricionista — nutritionist
- el/la paciente — patient
- el/la paramédico — paramedic
- quiropráctico(a) — chiropractor
- el/la pediatra — pediatrician
- el psicólogo/a — psychologist
- los primeros auxilios — first aid
- la salud — health
- la ambulancia — ambulance
- la aseguradora — insurance carrier
- el centro de salud — clinic
- la clínica — clinic
- la farmacia — drug store
- droguería — drug store
- el hospital — hospital
- el pabellón — ward
- la sala de espera — waiting room
- la sala de operaciones — operating room
- el sanatorio — sanatorium
Illnesses and Injuries
- la alergía — allergy
- la asfixia — suffocation
- el asma — asthma
- el ataque al corazón/paro cardiaco — heart attack
- el calambre — muscle cramp
- el cancer — cancer
- el chinchón— head bump
- el corte — cut
- la deshidratación — dehydration
- la diabetes — diabetes
- la diarrea — diarrhea
- el dolor — ache/pain
- el dolor de cabeza — headache
- el dolor de garganta — sore throat
- el dolor de estómago — stomach ache
- el dolor de diente — toothache
- la enfermedad — disease
- la enfermedad cardiaca — heart disease
- la enfermedad infecciosa — infectious disease
- los escalofríos— shaking chills
- la fractura — fracture
- la fiebre — fever
- la gripe — flu
- la herida — wound
- la hipotermia — hypothermia
- la infección — infection
- el malestar — discomfort
- el morete/moretón — bruise
- la náusea — nausea
- el raspón — graze
- el resfriado — cold
- el sangrado — bleeding
- la tos — cough
- el virus — virus
- el vomito — vomit
You now have the 1,000 most common Spanish words in your language toolbox! Start practicing these new words with a professional teacher today. Sign up for a free trial class and find out for yourself just how easy it is to learn Spanish. Our friendly, native-speaking teachers are experienced at working with beginners and will have you speaking Spanish in no time!
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As a native English speaker, I’ve spent over 6 years perfecting my Spanish. My studies have led me to major in Spanish, translate documents at a local museum, and communicate with people I otherwise wouldn’t have been able to know. I’ve studied abroad in Spain, lived in Yellowstone National Park for a summer, and volunteered in Costa Rica. I’m a passionate travel enthusiast seeking to share my love for all things Latin America.
Spanishalphabets.com is the best blog for learning Spanish numbers 1 to 10. Our simple and easy to follow guide will help you understand the basic concepts of counting in Spanish. In addition, we provide a counting trick that will make it easy for you to remember the numbers.
The following table lists the Spanish numbers 1 to 10.
In Spanish, the numbers 1 through 10 are each represented by a single digit. The number 1 is represented by the digit “1”, the number 2 is represented by the digit “2”, and so on.
Each of these digits has a separate meaning and function in the language. For example, the number “1” represents the concept of unity, while the number “2” represents the concept of duality.0 in Spanish – The Spanish word for zero is cero, which comes from the Arabic word ṣifr. In Spanish, the word “cero” is used to represent the concept of “zero” or “nothing.
1 in Spanish – In Spanish, the word “uno” is used for the number 1. This word is derived from the Latin word “unus”, which means “one”. The word “uno” is also used as an indefinite article, meaning “a” or “an”.
The number “1” is pronounced as “uno”. When used as a pronoun, it means “one”, “a”, or “an”. It can also be used as an adjective, meaning “first” or “primary”. As a noun, “uno” refers to the number one.
2 in Spanish – In Spanish, the number “2” is pronounced as “dos”. This is because the number “2” is represented by the letter “d” in Spanish. The letter “d” is pronounced as a hard “d” sound, like in the word “dog”. The letter “o” is pronounced as a long “o” sound, like in the word “boat”.
3 in Spanish – In Spanish, the number “3” is pronounced “tres”. The word “tres” is derived from the Latin word for “three”, which is “tres”. In Spanish, the number “3” is also used to indicate the third person singular pronoun, as in “él es tres”, meaning “he is three”.
4 in Spanish – In Spanish, the number “4” is pronounced “cuatro.” The word “cuatro” comes from the Latin word “quattuor,” which means “four.” The number “4” is a cardinal number, which means it indicates how many of something there are. In Spanish, the word “cuatro” is used for both the cardinal and ordinal number “4.
5 in Spanish – In Spanish, the number 5 is “cinco”. It is pronounced like “sink-oh”. The number 5 is an odd number. It is a prime number.
6 in Spanish – In Spanish, the number 6 is pronounced as “seis.” The word “seis” is derived from the Latin word “sex,” which means “six.”
The number 6 is an even number and is one of the numbers that are divisible by 2. The number 6 also has the property of being a perfect number, which means that it is equal to the sum of its proper divisors (1 + 2 + 3).
7 in Spanish – The number 7 in Spanish is “siete”. It is pronounced like “see-ETT-eh”. The number 7 is a lucky number in many cultures. It is considered a holy number in some religions, such as Christianity and Hinduism. In Spanish culture, the number 7 is often seen as a good luck charm.
8 in Spanish – In Spanish, the number 8 is “ocho”. This number is pronounced similarly to the English word “octopus”, with a slightly longer “o” sound.
The number 8 is considered a lucky number in many cultures, as it is seen as a symbol of good fortune and abundance. In Chinese culture, the number 8 is associated with wealth and prosperity.
In the Western world, the number 8 is often seen as a symbol of balance and infinity.
9 in Spanish – Nueve in Spanish is pronounced like “nway-vay”. It is written using the letter “n” and the number “9”. The word nueve means “nine” in Spanish.
Nueve in Spanish is 9. It is pronounced “noo-eh” and is the same in all Spanish speaking countries.
10 in Spanish – In Spanish, the number 10 is diez. The word diez is derived from the Latin word decem, which means ten. Diez is a masculine noun, so it takes the masculine article el in front of it. When used as an adjective, diez agrees with the noun it modifies in gender and number.
- Learn upto 100.
How to easily and quickly count to 10 in Spanish?
It’s easy to learn how to count to 10 in Spanish. With just a little practice, you’ll be able to quickly and easily count to 10 in Spanish. Here’s how:
To start, let’s review the numbers in Spanish: one is uno (oo-noh), two is dos (dohs), three is tres (trehs), four is cuatro (kwah-troh), five is cinco (seen-koh), six is seis (sehs), seven is siete (syeh-teh), eight is ocho (oh-choh), nine is nueve (nweh-beh), and 10 is diez (dyehs).
Now that we know the numbers, let’s put them together and count to 10 in Spanish.
The Different Ways to Count to 10 in Spanish
In Spanish, there are many different ways to count to 10. This can be confusing for beginners, but with a little practice, it’s easy to get the hang of it.
One way to count to 10 in Spanish is by using the numbers 1-10. For example, one would say “uno, dos, tres, quatro, cinco, seis, siete, ocho, nueve, diez.” Another way to count to 10 in Spanish is by using the numbers 1-5 and then 10. For example, one would say “uno, dos, tres, quatro, cinco, diez.”
Finally, another way to count to 10 in Spanish is by using the numbers 1-5 and then 7-10.
What are the Number One to Ten in Spanish?
In Spanish, the numbers one through ten are as follows: uno, dos, tres, cuatro, cinco, seis, siete, ocho, nueve and diez.
These numbers are important to know for many reasons. First and foremost, they’re the basic foundation for all other numbers in the language.
Secondly, they’ll come up often in conversation – whether you’re discussing how many siblings somebody has or telling someone your phone number.
In Spanish, the numbers one through ten are: uno, dos, tres, cuatro, cinco, seis, siete, ocho, nueve, and diez.
The word for “one” is used far more frequently than any other number in Spanish.
It’s used to express both singular and plural nouns as well as quantity. For example, the phrase “I have one book” would be “Tengo un libro.
How American Spanish Numbers 1-10 Differ from Traditional Spanish
If you’re learning Spanish, you might notice that the numbers 1-10 have some subtle differences when spoken in America compared to traditional Spanish. While the pronunciations are mostly the same, there are a few notable exceptions.
For example, in traditional Spanish, the number “uno” is pronounced almost like “OO-noh”, with a very slight emphasis on the first syllable. However, in American Spanish, it’s more common to hear it pronounced as “OO-noh”, with a stronger emphasis on the second syllable.
The number “dos” is another one that has a slightly different pronunciation in American Spanish. In traditional Spanish, it’s pronounced more like “dohs”, with a strong emphasis on the first syllable.
Why do Americans struggle to learn Spanish numbers up to 10?
Why do Americans struggle to learn Spanish numbers up to 10? A new study shows that Americans struggle to learn Spanish numbers due to the fact that they are not taught in schools.
The study, conducted by the University of California, found that only 12% of Americans can correctly identify all of the numbers up to 10 in Spanish.
This lack of knowledge can be attributed to the fact that Spanish is not a mandatory language in most American schools.
In addition, the majority of Americans speak English as their first language, which makes it difficult for them to learn a second language.
The study also found that Hispanics living in the United States are more likely to be able to correctly identify all of the numbers up to 10 in Spanish.
This is likely due to the fact that many Hispanics grow up speaking Spanish as their first language.
In Spanish, the numbers one to ten are as follows: uno, dos, tres, cuatro, cinco, seis, siete, ocho, nueve, diez. Here is a little trick to help you remember them:
Counting in Spanish is easy once you know a few key phrases. For example, “uno” means “one,” “dos” means “two,” and so on. To count from one to ten in Spanish, simply recite the following: Uno, dos, tres, cuatro, cinco.
I then say seis after cinco since that’s how you count in Spanish (unlike in English where we say “five-six”). After seis comes siete which is just seven in English.
Spanishalphabets.com’s FAQs section provides users with the ability to Spanish numbers 1 to 10, related questions and answers.
This product is ideal for those who want to improve their knowledge of the Spanish language, or for anyone who needs a quick reference guide for numbers in Spanish.
The Spanish numbers 1 to 10, related questions and answers are clearly laid out and easy to understand, making this product an essential tool for anyone learning or using Spanish.
Question (1) – How do you say the numbers 1 to 10 in Spanish?
Answer – The numbers 1 to 10 in Spanish are uno, dos, tres, quatro, cinco, seis, siete, ocho, nueve, and diez. When saying these numbers in Spanish, it is important to remember that the stress is always on the second-to-last syllable.
Question (2) – How do you go to 10 in Spanish?
Answer – In Spanish, the number 10 is diez. To count to 10 in Spanish, you would say uno, dos, tres, cuatro, cinco, seis, siete, ocho, nueve, diez.
To go to 10 in Spanish, you need to know the numbers 1-10. Once you know the numbers 1-10, you can count to 10 in Spanish by saying the numbers in order.
Question (3) – How do you write Spanish numbers in words?
Answer – To write Spanish numbers in words, you need to know the basics of the Spanish number system.
The Spanish number system is based on the decimal system, which means that every number is represented by a combination of ten symbols.
The first nine symbols represent the numbers one through nine and the tenth symbol represents zero. To write Spanish numbers in words, you simply combine these symbols together to form the numbers you want to represent.
Question (4) – What is the Spanish word for 1?
Answer – The Spanish word for “1” is “uno”. This word is derived from the Latin word “unus”, which means “one”. The word “uno” is used to represent the number “1” in Spanish.
Question (5) – What is the Spanish word for 2?
Answer – In Spanish, the word for “2” is “dos.” This word is derived from the Latin word for “two,” which is “duo.”
In Spanish, the word “dos” is used both as a noun and as an adjective. When used as a noun, it refers to the number two. When used as an adjective, it means “two of something,” such as “two apples.
Question (6) – What is the Spanish word for 3?
Answer – The Spanish word for three is “tres.” In Spanish, the number three is pronounced somewhat similarly to the English word “tree,” although the Spanish word has a bit of a rolling “r” sound at the end. The word “tres” is also used in other Romance languages, such as French and Italian.
Question (7) – What is the Spanish word for 4?
Answer – The Spanish word for 4 is “cuatro.” This word is derived from the Latin word “quattuor,” which means “four.” The word “cuatro” is used in many Spanish-speaking countries, including Spain, Mexico, and Cuba. In some Spanish-speaking countries, such as Argentina and Chile, the word “cuatro” is also used to mean “fourteen.
Question (8) – What is the Spanish word for 5?
Answer – The Spanish word for 5 is “cinco.” This word is derived from the Latin word “quinque,” which means “five.”
The word “cinco” is used in many Spanish-speaking countries, including Spain, Mexico, and Chile. In addition to being the word for 5, “cinco” can also be used as an adjective meaning “fifth.
Question (9) – What is the Spanish word for 6?
Answer – The Spanish word for 6 is seis. Seis is the cardinal number that follows cinco and precedes siete.
It is a natural number, though it is sometimes considered a composite number because it is the product of two primes (2 x 3). In Spanish, seis can be used as both a noun and an adjective.
Question (10) – What is the Spanish word for 7?
Answer – The Spanish word for 7 is “siete”. This word is derived from the Latin word “septem”, which means seven.
In Spanish, this word is used to express the cardinal number seven. It can be used as both a noun and an adjective, and it is one of the most common words in the Spanish language.
Question (11) – What is the Spanish word for 8?
Answer – The Spanish word for 8 is “ocho”. It is pronounced similarly to the English word “octave”. The word “ocho” comes from the Latin word “octavus”, which means “eighth”.
Question (12) – What is the Spanish word for 9?
Answer – The Spanish word for 9 is nueve. This word is derived from the Latin word novem, which means nine.
Nueve is also the feminine form of the adjective nuevo, meaning new. In Spanish, when a number is followed by a noun, the masculine form of the number is used if the noun is masculine, and the feminine form if the noun is feminine.
Question (13) – What is the Spanish word for 10?
Answer – The Spanish word for 10 is diez. Diez is a cardinal number that refers to the quantity of ten. It is also the root word for the ordinal number dieciséis, which is used to describe the sixteenth item in a series.
What is the Spanish Possessive?
When going to someone’s house for a visit, you may have heard the host welcome you and other guests by saying mi casa es su casa, which means “my house is your house.” This Spanish phrase has somehow made its way into American English, and is a great example of the Spanish possessive form in action!
The possessive is a way to describe the relationship between a person and an object, such as “his pencil” or a person with another person, like “my mother.” Essentially it answers the question, whose is this? And possessive pronouns in Spanish will answer this question in short.
Studying the possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns in Spanish in groups will definitely help you master them, so let’s start with possessive adjectives first.
Possessive Adjectives in Spanish
What Is Possessive Adjective in Spanish?
The example sentence mi casa es su casa uses possessive adjectives. This means that the mi in mi casa is an adjective that describes who the house belongs to, as does the su in su casa. Also, the possessive adjective replaces the article in front of a word – it wouldn’t make sense to say “the my house”, would it!
As you may have learned:
- in Spanish the adjective must match the word that it is describing when it comes to gender (masculine or feminine) as well as number (singular or plural).
- Some adjectives that are gender-neutral and don’t change no matter the gender of the word being described, as you will see coming up.
To continue with the word casa as our example, “their yellow house” in Spanish is su casa amarilla. Yellow is an adjective describing the house, therefore it must be feminine and singular like the word casa. Su is a gender-neutral word so there is no change needed in that regard, but must be singular because the house is singular.
A common mistake that Spanish learners make is to have the possessive adjective match the gender and number of who the thing belongs to, thinking that if something belongs to “them” plural, the word for “their” must also be plural to follow Spanish grammar rules. Like in the above example, you may be tempted to say sus casa for “their house,” but this is incorrect. The possessive adjective must match casa and be singular because casa is the word being described. So watch out!
Here are some more phrases that demonstrate the do’s and don’ts of agreement:
Possessive Adjectives in Spanish: Chart and Examples
Gender-neutral possessive adjectives
Below are all of the possessive adjectives in Spanish conveniently divided into singular and plural. These are gender-neutral, so you don’t have to worry about making the gender match!
- If the person or object being described is singular, such as la planta, then use the singular column on the left.
- If it is plural, like las plantas, use the plural on the right side!
Gender-neutral Spanish possessive adjectives:
|You all’s (formal)||su||sus|
You may have noticed that a lot of these are the same – so many su and sus! Fear not, this is explained later in the ambiguous “suyo” (click to skip to this part).
Gendered possessive adjectives
Now we come to the possessive adjectives in Spanish that are gendered. This means that if a word is masculine, like el café, you have to use the singular masculine form nuestro café for “our coffee” and vuestro café for “you all’s coffee.”
Simply look at the word that you want to add the possessive to, and match it to the correct gender and number below:
|Singular masculine||Singular feminine||Plural masculine||Plural feminine|
|You all’s (informal)||vuestro||vuestra||vuestros|
Here are some examples to demonstrate how to match the right possessive adjective to the word.
- The pencil – el lápiz
- Her pencil – su lápiz
- The mother – la madre
- Our mother – nuestra madre
- The apartment – el apartamento
- My apartment – mi apartamento
- The food – la comida
- Your (informal) food – tu comida
Practice with any Spanish vocabulary words, and watch out not to mix up with possessive pronouns in Spanish.
What Is Possessive Pronouns in Spanish?
Possessive pronouns in Spanish are counterpart words like “mine” and “theirs” in English that replace a noun in a sentence. If someone asks you which car to take to the store, you can say “mine” instead of “my car” because you already know from the context that you are talking about cars.
Pronouns are useful tools that allow us to shorten sentences and avoid needless repetition. For instance, instead of “Paul went to his house” you can say “he went to his.” Much simpler, right?
A possessive pronoun in Spanish must agree with the gender and number of the word that it is replacing. Therefore vámonos a mi casa would become vámonos a la mía. Notice that the article is included with the pronoun.
In general, you will include the article with the pronoun except when using the verb ser – “to be”. This is partly because sentences with “to be” are already describing the relationship between the person and the object, like in the sentence “whose is this?” Here are some examples using ser -“to be” that exclude the article.
The car is mine – El coche es mío
The notebook is hers – El cuaderno es suyo
That table is ours – Esa mesa es nuestra
Possessive Pronouns in Spanish: Chart and Examples
This is a complete chart of the possessive pronouns in Spanish that makes gender and number agreement easy!
|Singular masculine||Singular feminine||Plural masculine||Plural feminine|
|el mío||la mía||los míos||las mías|
|el tuyo||la tuya||los tuyos||las tuyas|
|el suyo||la suya||los suyos||las suyas|
|el suyo||la suya||los suyos||las suyas|
|Yours (formal)||el suyo||la suya||los suyos|
|You all’s (formal)||el suyo||la suya||los suyos|
|Theirs||el suyo||la suya||los suyos|
|Ours||el nuestro||la nuestra||los nuestros|
|You all’s (informal)||el vuestro||la vuestra||los vuestros|
Here are some examples of how to use the possessive pronouns in Spanish. As you can see, the possessive pronouns in Spanish matches the gender and number of the word that it is replacing.
I drink from my cup. – Tomo de mi vaso.
I drink from mine. – Tomo del mío.
We return to our house. – Volvemos a nuestra casa.
We return to ours. – Volvemos a la nuestra.
You (informal) eat at his restaurant – Comes en su restaurante.
You (informal) eat at his. – Comes en el suyo.
Formal and Informal “You”: Which Possessive Pronouns in Spanish to Use?
All of the charts include a lot of “you” variations – you informal, you formal, you all informal and you all formal.
This is because in Spanish, there are two levels of formality when addressing someone, as well as singular and plural. Once you learn a bit about these variations, it’s easy to know the difference and when it is appropriate to say tu casa or su casa.
How are “tu” and “su” used in Spanish:
- The singular informal is used when talking to a friend or someone you are familiar with. So you can say to your best friend: vámonos a tu casa – “let’s go to your house.”
- The singular formal is used with a stranger or in a professional setting. For example, a waiter will show you to su mesa – “your (formal) table” since he is serving a customer.
These same formality guidelines apply to the plural informal and the plural formal, which are used when addressing more than one person. It is important to note, however, that the plural informal is mainly used in Spain, whereas in Latin America it is more common to use the plural formal to address any group no matter the formality level. It’s a cultural thing!
For more information about the “you” variations, also known as the second person, the LingoDeer app has tons of information and practice!
The Ambiguous “suyo”
After reviewing all of the charts with the possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns in Spanish, you may have seen that there is a lot of repetition.
The possessive for you (formal), his, her, their, and you all (formal) is the same!
|You all’s (formal)||su||sus|
On one hand, this is great for Spanish learners like you because there are less words to study. On the other hand, how will you know which is which? Su casa can mean your house, his house, her house, their house, you all’s house…
One way to know the difference is based on context. If a conversation is about his classes, then each su/sus/suyo/suya is about him. And when a host is welcoming you and your family and says mi casa es su casa, the su is for all of you!
Another way that Spanish speakers clarify ambiguity in the possessive is with de + person/s possessing. This structure is equivalent to apostrophe “s” in English and literally means “of + person/s,” which allows you to use names as well as pronouns! To demonstrate, below are some examples. Note that there are two ways to translate this structure into English and both have been included.
Marco’s homework / The homework of Marco – La tarea de Marco
Paula’s house / The house of Paula – La casa de Paula
Sherry and José’s daughter / The daughter of Sherry and José – La hija de Sherry y José
Their work / The work of them – El trabajo de ellos
Your (formal) time / The time of you – El tiempo de usted
Her book / The book of her – El libro de ella
The Possessive Neuter Form in Spanish
There may come a time when you want to refer to something general, and don’t have a word for the possessive pronoun to match gender and number to. In English we would say “what’s mine is yours” or “that country wants what is ours” and are referring to all possessions. In Spanish, the following formula is used when speaking generally about non-specific possessions: Lo + singular masculine pronoun. Here are some sentences that use this formula.
We have to protect what is ours. – Tenemos que proteger lo nuestro.
I like what is mine. – Me gusta lo mío.
Melisa eats what is hers. – Melisa come lo suyo.
Summary: Possessive Pronouns in Spanish
In this article, we learned that the possessive is used to describe what belongs to who.
- Possessive adjectives replace the article and go before the word being described, as in tomo de mi vaso – “I drink from my cup”
- Possessive pronouns replace the word, as in tomo del mío – “I drink from mine.”
Most of the possessive adjectives like mi and su are gender-neutral and don’t need to be changed to match the gender of the word, however, they still must match the number and become mis and sus if they are describing something plural.
In contrast, a possessive pronouns in Spanish has an article (el, la, los, las) in front of it unless the sentence uses ser – “to be.” In addition, all of these pronouns need to account for gender and number.
The possessive is pretty straight forward, but some topics arose that you may not be familiar with. As you continue your Spanish learning journey, things that seem complicated like the formal and informal “you”, the third person like su and suyo being the same, and gender and number agreement will become easy. The best way to learn a language is to be motivated and practice and LingoDeer is with you every step of the way!
Kirsten has been fascinated by foreign languages since childhood and has made it her mission to inspire others with her passion for Spanish. She has a master’s degree in Hispanic Studies from Boston College and has tutored and taught students of all ages.
View all posts by Kirsten Agla
Have you decided to learn Spanish? Congratulations! It will be a very exciting and rewarding journey.
However, as you set out to learn this new language, you might not know where to begin. The sheer number of Spanish vocabulary words you have to learn can be overwhelming!
Keep in mind that you don’t need to rush into lessons that are above your level. It’s better to start from the basics and build a foundation that will help you reach your desired level of proficiency in Spanish!
To give you a boost, SpanishPod101 has compiled this guide to basic Spanish words for beginners. We’ve listed over 200 common Spanish words in different categories, providing additional information where necessary.
You’re one step closer to your first conversation in Spanish!
Table of Contents
- Final Thoughts
Pronouns are some of the most important basic Spanish words for beginners. You’ll use them often in regular conversations!
However, when you start learning Spanish, you might be overwhelmed by how complex the pronoun system is. Don’t worry! We’ll start with the basics.
1 – Personal Subject Pronouns
Personal subject pronouns replace the subject of a sentence. You can use them to talk about a previously mentioned noun, whether it’s a person, an animal, or an object. In addition, you can use them to talk about yourself or to address other people.
- Yo hablo español. → “I speak Spanish.”
- Vosotros habláis inglés. → “You speak English.”
|1st person sg.||yo||I|
|2nd person sg.||tú||you|
|3rd person sg.||él, ella||he, she|
|1st person pl.||nosotros||we|
|2nd person pl.||vosotros||you|
|3rd person pl.||ellos, ellas||they|
You might be surprised to learn that most native speakers won’t use personal subject pronouns to begin a sentence. The subject is often omitted unless it’s not obvious who or what we’re talking about.
- Hablo español. → “(I) speak Spanish.”
- Habláis inglés. → “(You) speak English.”
Apart from subject pronouns, other personal pronouns include direct object pronouns, indirect object pronouns, and prepositional pronouns. In Spanish, personal pronouns change form depending on their function and position in the sentence. Want to learn more? Check out SpanishPod101’s lesson on personal pronouns.
2 – Demonstrative Pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns in Spanish (such as ese, este, and aquel) are quite easy for English speakers to grasp, as they work similarly to their English equivalents. You can use them to identify a person, an animal, or a thing, as well as its distance from you. These are some of the basic beginner Spanish words you need to learn early on!
In English, there are only four demonstrative pronouns: this and that and their plural forms these and those. However, in Spanish, there are fifteen! Why is that?
First of all, Spanish demonstrative pronouns correspond to the three different adverbs used to express distance: aquí (“here”), allá (“there”), and ahí (expresses something between here and there).
- Este de aquí es mi perro. → “This is my dog.”
- Esos de ahí son mis amigos. → “Those are my friends.”
- Aquel de allá es mi coche. → “That is my school.”
The other main difference between Spanish and English demonstrative pronouns is the gender distinction, which applies to both singular and plural pronouns. Spanish has different forms for masculine, feminine, and neuter gender.
3 – Interrogative Pronouns
Interrogative pronouns are crucial in any language, making them some of the most important Spanish words for beginners to learn. Asking is the best way to learn, after all!
And here’s some good news: They’re very easy for English speakers to learn, as they work just like their English equivalents!
- Qué → “What”
¿Qué quieres comer? → “What do you want to eat?”
- Cuál → “Which”
¿Cuál de ellos es tu hijo? → “Which one is your son?”
- Por qué → “Why”
¿Por qué dejaste tu trabajo? → “Why did you quit your job?”
- Quién → “Who”
¿Quién vas a invitar a tu cumpleaños? → “Who will you invite to your birthday?”
- Dónde → “Where”
¿Dónde vas a ir de vacaciones? → “Where will you go on your vacation?”
- Cuánto → “How much”
¿Cuánto pagaste por esta chaqueta? → “How much did you pay for this jacket?”
- Cuántos / Cuántas → “How many”
¿Cuántos días te vas a quedar? → “How many days will you stay?”
¿Cuántas manzanas quieres comprar? → “How many apples do you want to buy?”
- Cuándo → “When”
¿Cuándo vas a tener el bebé? → “When will you have the baby?”
Of course, it will be helpful to learn a few full questions by heart if you’re planning to visit Spain or have a conversation with a Spanish speaker. Fortunately, SpanishPod101 always has your back! Check out the Top 15 Questions You Should Know for Conversations.
¿Cuándo vas a tener el bebé? (“When will you have the baby?”)
One of the most characteristic aspects of the Spanish language is its articles. Studying these basic Spanish words for beginners is key to starting your learning journey off on the right foot.
Articles accompany nouns and can be definite (like the English word “the”) or indefinite (like the English words “a” and “an”).
- El vaso → “The glass”
- Un vaso → “A glass”
In Spanish, however, they also indicate gender and number. This is why there are more articles to learn than there are in English.
|Person||Definite article||Indefinite article|
- → Struggling with the Spanish gender rules? Thanks to our lesson Using the Right Gender and Number of Spanish Nouns, understanding the basics has never been easier!
There is also the neuter article lo, which goes before adjectives, participles, and ordinal numbers that are not followed by a noun.
- Lo mejor → “The best”
- Lo hablado → “What was said”
- Lo primero → “The first”
When you start learning a language, you definitely have to learn how to count in it!
Let’s see the cardinal Spanish numbers from one to ten:
- Uno → “One”
- Dos → “Two”
- Tres → “Three”
- Cuatro → “Four”
- Cinco → “Five”
- Seis → “Six”
- Siete → “Seven”
- Ocho → “Eight”
- Nueve → “Nine”
- Diez → “Ten”
And here are the ordinal Spanish numbers from one to ten:
- Primero → “First”
- Segundo → “Second”
- Tercero → “Third”
- Cuarto → “Fourth”
- Quinto → “Fifth”
- Sexto → “Sixth”
- Séptimo → “Seventh”
- Octavo → “Eighth”
- Noveno → “Ninth”
- Décimo → “Tenth”
Once you’ve mastered counting from one to ten, check out SpanishPod101’s lessons on numbers to learn how to count to infinity!
Nouns identify a person, animal, place, thing, or idea. Spanish nouns can be singular or plural, and each one has a grammatical gender.
Below is a list of nouns you can use in your daily life, whether your back hurts, you’re looking for the post office, or you’re preparing a tasty meal. These basic beginner Spanish words can help you communicate general ideas even before you learn how to form sentences, so remember as many as you can!
- → Don’t forget to check out our article The 100 Most Common Spanish Nouns, where you’ll learn how to use singular, plural, and different-gendered nouns!
1 – Body Parts
|nuca||back of the neck|
|pecho / pechos||chest / breasts|
|These are some tricky words! Pechos is plural for pecho (“chest”), but it actually refers to “breasts.”|
2 – Family
|madre (Mamá)||mother (Mom)|
|padre (Papá)||father (Dad)|
|hijo / hija||son / daughter|
|hermano / hermana||brother / sister|
|abuelo / abuela||grandfather / grandmother|
|tío / tía||uncle / aunt|
|sobrino / sobrina||nephew / niece|
|primo / prima||cousin|
¡Una familia unida! (“A united family!”)
3 – Occupations
|maestro / maestra||teacher|
|profesor / profesora||professor|
|policía||policeman / policewoman|
|médico / doctor / doctora||doctor|
|In Spanish, médico and doctor are used often equally. However, the phrase “to go to the doctor” is often said as “ir al médico” and, when you address the doctor directly you’ll refer to him or her as “doctor” or “doctora“, sometimes followed by his or her surname.|
|enfermero / enfermera||nurse|
|abogado / abogada||lawyer|
|cocinero / cocinera||cook|
|camarero / camarera||waiter / waitress|
|empresario / empresaria||businessman / businesswoman|
4 – Places Around Town
|mercado / supermercado||market / supermarket|
|oficina de correos||post office|
|estación de tren||train station|
|centro (de la ciudad)||city center / downtown|
|In Spanish cities and towns, it’s common to refer to the old and central areas as el centro. It’s usually where there are the most tourist attractions and where rent is most expensive.|
|afueras (de la ciudad)||outskirts|
|Contrary to the concept of el centro, there is the concept of las afueras, which refers to the areas of a town or city that are farther away from the urban core.|
5 – School and Office Essentials
|You’ll rarely hear a student say the word bolígrafo. The diminutive boli is much more commonly used.|
|To say “the laptop,” most Spanish speakers will say el portátil, but some may say ordenador too. Nowadays, laptops are more popular than traditional computers, so some people specify ordenador de sobremesa (literally, “on-desk computer”).|
|folio||piece of paper|
|goma de borrar||eraser|
|pizarra||blackboard / whiteboard / chalkboard / greenboard|
|This word is used to talk specifically about school desks.|
Lista para la escuela (“Ready for school”)
6 – Food
- → If you want to expand your vocabulary with even more essential nouns, you can start by reading SpanishPod101’s article on untranslatable Spanish words!
Verbs are some of the most common and basic beginner Spanish words. Why is that? Because verbs are used to describe every action in our lives!
Here’s a list with over 50 verbs that will prove useful when you’re starting to speak Spanish. Did you know that in Spanish there are four different verbs that mean “to eat”? Keep reading!
- → At SpanishPod101.com, you can find free vocabulary lists to keep on learning!
1 – Basic Auxiliary Verbs
The verbs ser and estar both translate to the English verb “to be,” but they serve different functions.
Ser is used for permanent or lasting attributes, occupations, characteristics, origins, and relationships. It’s also used to give the time.
- Marta es una buena persona. → “Marta is a good person.”
- Son las dos de la tarde. → “It is two in the afternoon.”
On the other hand, estar is used for positions, locations, actions, conditions, and emotions:
- La ciudad de Moscú está en Rusia. → “The city of Moscow is in Russia.”
- Estoy haciendo la compra. → “I’m doing the grocery shopping.”
These auxiliary verbs are some of the most important Spanish words for beginners to learn. They’re used with main verbs to express the tense or to explain the way in which the verb is understood.
- He fregado los platos. → “I’m doing the dishes.”
- Estoy haciendo la compra. → “I’m doing the shopping.”
- La presidenta fue elegida por sus conciudadanos. → “The president was chosen by her fellow citizens.”
2 – Most Common Verbs
|Don’t mix up tener with haber!|
Tener means “to have” in the sense of “to possess.”
|hacer||to do / to make|
3 – The Five Senses
|ver / mirar||to see / to watch|
|escuchar / oir||to hear / to listen|
¿Qué ven esos ojos? (“What do those eyes see?”)
4 – Basic Actions
|dejar||to leave / to put|
|Dejar is used in the sense of “leaving something” in a specific place.|
5 – Thoughts and Feelings
|Both conocer and saber translate to the English verb “to know.” However, they’re used in very different situations.|
Saber is used when the speaker knows a fact, piece of information, or how to do something. Conocer, on the other hand, is used when the speaker knows a person, place, or thing.
|querer / amar||to love|
6 – Daily Routine
|despertarse||to wake up|
|levantarse||to get up|
|desayunar||to eat breakfast|
|almorzar||to eat lunch or second breakfast|
|comer||to eat (lunch)|
|cenar||to eat dinner|
|Spanish speakers use different verbs meaning “to eat,” depending on the meal they’re having.|
The first meal of the day is desayuno, so the verb is always desayunar.
Almorzar means “to eat lunch,” but most people nowadays use it to talk about a second meal you have between breakfast and lunch (could be the Spanish equivalent to “brunch”).
Comer is the generic word for eating whatever and whenever, but if you say voy a comer you mean “I’m going to have lunch.”
Lastly, the final meal of the day is la cena; when you eat dinner, you’ll say cenar.
7 – Life and Death
|nacer||to be born|
|crecer||to grow (up)|
- → Learning the Spanish verb tenses can be overwhelming. But don’t worry, SpanishPod101 will help you master this subject in our Spanish Verb Conjugation Series.
¡Vivir es nacer a cada instante! -Erich Fromm (“To live is to be born every second!” -Erich Fromm)
Our next set of Spanish beginner words are adjectives. These colorful words can help you describe the world around you and strengthen the impact of your speaking or writing.
Spanish adjectives agree in gender and number with the noun they describe. In this table, you’ll find both genders in the format [ Masculine / Feminine ]. If you see only one, it means the masculine and feminine forms are identical.
Plurals, on the other hand, are rather predictable and follow the general rules of Spanish plural formation.
- → You might want to check out a more detailed article on Spanish adjectives for more grammar information and examples.
1 – Describing Objects
The following adjectives can be used to describe the physical attributes or aspects of objects, and are sometimes used to describe people and animals too.
|pequeño / pequeña||small / little|
|largo / larga||long|
|pesado / pesada||heavy|
|Beware! Most of the time, when people use pesado or pesada to describe a person, they’re using it as an insult to call them “tiresome” or “annoying.”|
|ligero / ligera||light|
2 – Describing People
These adjectives, on the other hand, are mostly used to describe people. They can also describe animals where applicable.
|guapo / guapa||beautiful / pretty / handsome|
|atractivo / atractiva||attractive|
|alto / alta||tall|
|bajo / baja||short|
|delgado / delgada||thin|
|gordo / gorda||fat|
|viejo / vieja||old|
|rubio / rubia||blond|
|moreno / morena||dark (skinned or haired)|
|pelirrojo / pelirroja||red-haired|
3 – Describing Emotions
|contento / contenta||happy / pleased|
|emocionado / emocionada||excited / emotional|
|ilusionado / ilusionada||hopeful / excited|
|desanimado / desanimada||disheartened|
|deprimido / deprimida||depressed|
|ansioso / ansiosa||anxious / eager|
|aburrido / aburrida||bored|
|avergonzado / avergonzada||embarrassed / ashamed|
4 – Describing Weather
You can use conjunctions to connect words, clauses, and sentences.
- y → “and”
El perro y el gato → “The dog and the cat”
- ni → “nor”
Ni el perro ni el gato → “Not the dog nor the cat”
- pero → “but”
Quiero ir pero tengo que estudiar. → “I want to go but I have to study.”
- porque → “because”
Me marcho porque estoy cansado. → “I’m leaving because I’m tired.”
Many people, even native Spanish speakers, mix up porque and por qué when they write, but they mean very different things! While porque means “because,” por qué means “why.”
- como → “like” / “as”
Pelean como el perro y el gato. → “They fight like dogs and cats.”
- ya que → “because” / “since”
Dejó los estudios ya que encontró un trabajo. → “She quit her degree because she got a job.”
- que → “that” / “who”
Mi madre es la persona que más me quiere. → “My mother is the person who loves me the most.”
Check out SpanishPod101’s lesson Spanish Conjunctions: But You Won’t Have Time! to learn about different types of conjunctions.
El perro y el gato (“The dog and the cat”)
- a → “to”
Me voy a dormir. → “I’m going to sleep.”
- de → “from” / “of”
Recibí una carta de mi abuelo. → “I received a letter from my grandad.”
- en → “in”
Pon la ropa en la lavadora. → “Put the clothes in the washing machine.”
- con → “with”
Han venido con sus amigos. → “They have come with their friends.”
- por → “by” / “for”
Este pastel está hecho por él mismo. → “This cake was made by himself.”
- sin → “without”
He venido sin abrigo. → “I came without a coat.”
- para → “for”
Mi sobrina dibujó esto para mí. → “My niece drew this for me.”
Mi sobrina dibujó esto para mí. (“My niece drew this for me.”)
9. Final Thoughts
In this guide to basic Spanish words for beginners, you’ve learned more than 200 of the most common Spanish words. These will prove useful as you get ready to handle your first conversations in Spanish!
How many of these words did you know already? Were any of them new to you? We look forward to hearing your thoughts!
If you want to take your Spanish learning journey further, don’t forget to check out SpanishPod101. We have plenty of free vocabulary lists to help you expand your Spanish vocabulary, as well as useful lessons ranging from Beginner Level to Advanced.
Enjoy the ride!
One of the best things about learning Spanish from English is that there are hundreds of words you already know.
As an English speaker, you have a huge advantage in learning Spanish compared to say a person trying to learn Spanish with a native language from a country such as Japan or China. You have the advantage of the same alphabet and a mile-long list of cognates. What this means is you effectively start learning Spanish with a vocabulary of almost 1000 words without even trying.
When you find words that are the same in both languages they are referred to as English-Spanish cognates.
The proper definition of cognate is reserved for words that exist in two different languages and have the same root or origin. Since Spanish and English both have Latin roots there are heaps of words that are the same or very close in both languages.
In this article, I’m going to provide a list of perfect cognates and near-perfect cognates for Spanish and English.
There are way more English-Spanish cognates than what I have provided in this article but the cognates that I have focused on are the more useful due to their frequency and practicality in both languages.
I suggest you read through the full list once over and then when you have a good feel for the patterns that start to emerge with the cognates, start to put them in a few Spanish sentences to get a feel for how they sound.
Obviously, they aren’t pronounced the same as in English but once you have the rules down for Spanish pronunciation you are free to communicate away.
In this article, I have defined perfect cognates as words that are spelt exactly the same in Spanish and English except for maybe an accent over one letter and they mean the same thing in both languages.
I have defined near perfect cognates as words that have up to 3 letters different. But you will be able to see that there are certain patterns that form with near perfect cognates that allow you to potentially predict when a near cognate is likely to exist if, of course, you don’t have this list handy.
Printable Version: Download this PDF version of the cognates listto use as a study reference.
There is also a heap of false cognates or false friends, which will be a topic for another post but note here that they are words that are spelt the same or similar but mean completely different things. For example one of the most famous Spanish-English false friends is ‘embarazada’ which doesn’t mean ‘embarrassed’ it means ‘pregnant’.
Here is the list of perfect English-Spanish cognates that I have selected for their practicality:
Near Perfect Cognates
Here the near perfect cognates are divided into separate lists based on their behaviour:
The following near perfect cognates follow the rule for nouns ending ‘tion’ in English can be converted to Spanish by replacing with a ‘ción’.
The following near perfect cognates follow the rule for English nouns ending ‘ary’ can be converted to Spanish by replacing with a ‘ario’.
The following near perfect cognates follow the rule for English adjectives ending ‘ic’ can be converted to Spanish by replacing with a ‘ico’.
The following near perfect cognates follow the rule for English adjectives ending ‘ous’ can be converted to Spanish by replacing with a ‘oso’.
The following near perfect cognates follow the rule for nouns ending ‘ct’ in English can be converted to Spanish by replacing with a ‘cto’.
There you have it, not all, but a good summary of the most useful English-Spanish cognates.
If you enjoyed this post then make sure you check out the Spanish Conversation Hacking Guide, in there you will find the 1000 most useful Spanish words based on frequency use in the Spanish language (and that aren’t cognates!).
What have I missed? Can you think of any others?
One of the first things that a beginner Spanish language learner might be confused about is the presence in many words of what looks to be an “N” or “n” with a peculiar squiggly line over it.
This strange-looking N is actually another letter that is part of the Spanish alphabet.
The letter Ñ is the 15th letter in the Spanish alphabet and there are
about 15,700 Spanish words that use this letter. It was a letter that was invented by Spanish speakers as it isn’t part of the Latin alphabet.
Ñ represents what is called a voiced palatal nasal, which is a type of consonant used in certain spoken languages. When you want to refer to Ñ, it is pronounced “eh-nyeh”, when you are using Ñ in a word, you pronounce it “ny”.
You may encounter many words that have Ñ in them, including a few words that start with Ñ. To help you learn about this particular Spanish letter, we’ve compiled a list of Spanish words that begin with Ñ for you to study.
Pronunciation guide: nyoh
This is basically the shortened version of Señor. It is placed in front of the name of an older male. You are more likely to hear this when conversion with Spanish speakers in South America.
Pronunciation guide: nyah
Similar to the word above, this is the shortened version of a common form of address. In this case, it’s used in the place of Doña. Again, this is more commonly used in South America.
Pronunciation guide: nyah-nyoh
Meaning: Close Friend, Spoiled, Homosexual, Brother, Kid
This is another of those Spanish words that start with ñ that you are more likely to hear when traveling through the South American countries, and it can mean different things depending on where you are:
Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru – close friend
Colombia and Panama – spoiled child
Panama – homosexual
Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador – brother (the term
for family member)
Peru — child
Pronunciation guide: nyoh-nyoh
Meaning: Bland, Dull, Boring
This is one of those Spanish words that start with Ñ that is used as an adjective. You use it to refer to people, things, or situations that are uninteresting
Pronunciation guide: nyohm-bloh
This Spanish adjective is mostly used in Nicaragua. It’s the word they use to describe someone who is obese.
Pronunciation guide: nyah-to
This is a Spanish adjective used mostly in the Latin American countries to describe someone we would refer to as “pug-nosed”. Outside of Latin America, people with this feature are described as “chato”.
If you are in Uruguay, however, this word is used to mean a boxer or someone who participates in the sport of boxing.
Pronunciation guide: nyoh-ngo
If you want to talk about someone nosy or intrusive, who tends to get involved with other people’s business, you can use this Spanish word to describe them. This is most commonly used in Cuba.
Pronunciation guide: nyoh-nyeh-ria
This is a Spanish word that is used to describe someone as dull or uninteresting. It can also be used to say that someone is “spineless”.
Pronunciation guide: nyan-goh-tarseh
Meaning: Squat or crouch down
This Spanish verb is mostly used by speakers of
the Caribbean Spanish dialect. It can also be used to describe someone who is discouraged or has “lost heart”.
Pronunciation guide: nyah-nyah-rah
If you are traveling in Honduras, you might encounter this Spanish word that starts with Ñ. This is what they say when they want to refer to the state of “laziness” or “pereza”.
Pronunciation guide: nyah-mer-ah
If you are traveling in Panama, you could hear this Spanish word with an Ñ. It’s used the same way an English speaker would use “madness” to describe someone who was acting crazy or off. Other Spanish speakers might use “locura” instead.
Pronunciation guide: nyahng-ge
Meaning: Way back
This Spanish word is the equivalent of the English phrase “way back”. So, when someone who is talking about a time or an incident uses this, they are describing something that happened in the “distant past”.
Pronunciation guide: nyeh-keh
Meaning: Strength or courage
This Spanish word is usually used to mean “strength” in Bolivia, Chile, Nicaragua, and Peru. It can also mean courage or bravery in Bolivia, Peru, and Nicaragua as well as for
Spanish-speakers in Venezuela and Ecuador.
Pronunciation guide: nyah-fyar
This is a Spanish verb, mostly used in the Caribbean, that means to pilfer or take without permission.
Pronunciation guide: nyih-keh
If you are traveling in Central American, you might hear this word used if someone is describing a fight. It can mean a headbutt or even a punch.
Pronunciation guide: nyah-kara
Meaning: Ulcer or sore
This is a Spanish word that you’re more likely to hear in Central America. It refers to the medical condition of having an ulcer or a sore.
Pronunciation guide: nyahng-gado
This is a Spanish word that is mostly used in the Caribbean region to refer to someone who is bow-legged.
Pronunciation guide: nyah-ngo
This is a Mexican slang word used to describe someone, usually a man or boy, as weak in body and also weak-willed.
It is also used in some Latin American countries to describe someone as being awkward or clumsy.
Pronunciation guide: nyahke
This is a Spanish word that can be used to describe something that is worthless or has been discarded as no longer useful.
Pronunciation guide: nyih-qwi-nyah-keh
This is used as another word for trash or junk, however, it can also be used as an insult to say that someone is a “worthless individual”.
Pronunciation guide: nyah-pah
This word that starts with a Ñ is mostly used in Latin America. It’s basically the equivalent of a “freebie” or something you got extra for no extra price.
Pronunciation guide: nyahn-gadah
This is a word that is mostly used in the Central American countries that means to take a nip or a small bit.
Pronunciation guide: nyah-meh
This is the Spanish word for the root crop known in English as the yam.
Pronunciation guide: nyaw
In Latin American countries, the cat says this instead of “meow”.
Pronunciation guide: nyaw-ar
Meaning: To meow
If you want to talk about the act of “meowing”, this is the Spanish verb for it.
Pronunciation guide: nyahn-doo
This is a big flightless bird similar to an ostrich or an emu. You can find these in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Patagonia, and Uruguay.
Pronunciation guide: nyoo
Meaning: Wildebeest, Gnu
This is the Spanish word for a species of antelope found in Eastern and Southern Africa.
Pronunciation guide: nyohr-ba
This is the Andean Spanish word for the flowering plant known as the passionflower.
Pronunciation guide: nyahn-du-tih
Meaning: Paraguayan lace
This is a
handicraft from Paraguay which is created by using threads of cotton or silk to draw a pattern on a piece of fabric. The word is actually Guarani, which is an indigenous language in Paraguay that refers to a “spider web”.
Pronunciation guide: nyah-pang-oh
Meaning: Mixed race
In Columbia, this is the Spanish word for “mulatto” or “mestizo” which are the terms used to refer to someone of mixed ancestry.
Pronunciation guide: nyah-kah
Meaning: Ha or So, there
This word is used as an exclamation, to put some emphasis or feeling on a statement of triumph. It’s like saying “ha” or “so, there” in English after you were proven right or correct.
Pronunciation guide: nyah-koh
This is what Mexican Spanish speakers call “popcorn”.
Pronunciation guide: nyahm
In Spanish, this is an informal exclamation that you can use to say that something is tasty. Similar to English, it’s usually repeated so “ñam ñam” or “yum yum”.
Pronunciation guide: nyuh-tireh
Meaning: To grunt
In the Andean Spanish dialect, this is the verb that denotes the action of grunting.
Pronunciation guide: nyahn-gara
This is another of those Spanish words that start with Ñ that is more commonly used by speakers of Caribbean Spanish. It refers to “guerrilla fighters” who engage in guerrilla warfare.
Pronunciation guide: nyoh-ko
Meaning: Lacking a finger
This is a Spanish adjective you might hear when traveling through Latin America. It is used to describe someone who has lost a finger.
Pronunciation guide: nyah-ta
In the Andean Spanish dialect, this is the word for death.
As you can see from the words we listed above, many of them are region or dialect-specific. This means that you might only hear them if you are traveling to a region where a particular Spanish dialect is spoken.
These regional differences are why it’s important to make sure that, you book a few lessons with a native-speaking online tutor in the particular Spanish dialect that you want to learn.
Sure, most Spanish dialects are largely the same, you can probably make yourself understood quite well in Peru or Valenzuela even if you speak Peninsular Spanish. But, if you really want to communicate well, it’s something of an advantage to be familiar with the particular dialect of the region. That way, you can ensure that you can better follow along with daily conversations and not end up confused when running into one of these Spanish words that start with ñ.
Although Spanish has a word for "it," ello, that word is uncommon and can only be used as a subject pronoun or the object of a preposition under some circumstances. When "it" is the subject of an English sentence, the word typically is omitted in translation to Spanish.What is the meaning of Este in Spanish? ›
From Latin iste (“that”). Cognate to Spanish este (“this”).Is there a word for they in Spanish? ›
Saying “they” in Spanish is pretty simple. You'll use “ellos” if the group is masculine. If the group is feminine, you'll use “ellas.” Here's a good example: Ellos son hermanos y ellas son hermanas.What is the meaning of Ojala Que? ›
Ojalá is often translated as hopefully or let's hope. Ojalá or Ojalá que + El Presente de Subjuntivo = I hope (something happens) One can express the same idea with the structure Esperar que + El Presente de Subjuntivo; however, the word Ojalá expresses more intensity in the idea of hope.What does cha cha mean in Spanish? ›
chacha. 1 (criada) maid; housemaid. 2 (niñera) nanny; nursemaid.What do Mexicans say when they're mad? ›
Estoy molesto / molesta
The expression estoy molesto (I'm upset) is understood in all Spanish-speaking countries and is considered one of the most common Spanish expressions of anger.
Ese is a Spanish slang term which means comrade, pal or friend. Young teens often use this term to refer to their circle of friends. This Spanish slang is often used by Mexicans or individuals with Spanish ethnicity” (http:// www.ask.com/question/what-does-ese-mean-in-spanish-slang; accessed 9 October 2020).Why do Mexicans say Este? ›
Este. This is the favorite filler word of Mexicans. When we say it everyone knows that we lost our train of thought and we are going to need more than a second to come back. You can translate it literally to “this” but in this case it means something like “say” or “hmm” like the sound you make when you think.What is girl in Spanish slang? ›
[ɡɜːl ] chica f ⧫ muchacha f. (= small) niña f. (= young woman) chica f ⧫ joven f.What is vosotros? ›
Spain uses the second-person plural “vosotros” (you all) whereas most of Latin America uses the second-person plural “ustedes” to mean “you all.”
Vosotros is a Spanish personal pronoun used to refer to the second person plural in Spain. It's also a gender-neutral pronoun, which applies to feminine and masculine subjects together. If you're referring to only female plural subjects, you use vosotras.Does Vosotros mean them? ›
So, what does vosotros mean and when do you use it? In European Spanish, vosotros is a way of saying “you” plural in informal situations. It is by far the most common way to address multiple people when you're in Spain. In the singular form, the Spanish use tú. This becomes vosotros in the plural form.What does es bueno que mean? ›
Spanish. English. Es bueno/malo que. It is good/bad that.What is que pasa in Spain? ›
Even if you are a beginner at Spanish, you may have already encountered the phrase ¿Qué pasa? means to happen, so this phrase literally translates as What happens?, though in English you would typically say What's up? or What's going on? to greet someone you know. ¡Ojo!What are slang words in Spanish? ›
|Spanish slang word||Spanish pronunciation||English meaning|
chichi. 1 (vulva) fanny (vulgar); beaver (vulgar); (EEUU) 2 (México) (teta) tit (vulgar) 3 (México) (niñera) nursemaid.What is cha mi in English? ›
kiss, act of kissing, act of love.What is a ChaCha in Mexican slang? ›
chacha [f] MX ES. female servant or cleaner.What is disrespectful to Mexicans? ›
Mexicans often "hold" a gesture (a handshake, a squeeze of the arm, a hug) longer than Americans and Canadians do. Don't stand with your hands on your hips; this signifies anger. It is considered rude to stand around with your hands in your pockets.What is a rude gesture in Mexico? ›
Beckoning a person with the palm and fingers pointed up is considered rude. Instead, hold your hand in front of you and keep your palm facing down. Then curl your fingers back towards your body. The “okay” gesture with the thumb and index finger is considered vulgar.
There's no literal translation for órale in English. Instead, it can mean one of a few different expressions, such as: “Okay”
Vale vs. Bale | Compare English Words - SpanishDict. "Vale" is a noun which is often translated as "el valle", and "bale" is a noun which is often translated as "el fardo".What pronouns do you use for it in Spanish? ›
|English||Spanish masculine||Spanish feminine|
|He / she / it||Él||Ella|
|You (plural + plural formal)||Ustedes / Vosotros||Ustedes / Vosotras|
With verb conjugations, if "it" is the subject, one must conjugate according to the conjugation listed form él, ella y usted. The reason why "there is no Spanish word for "it" in a verb conjugation chart, for example, is because, although it seems really strange to English speakers....What is the meaning of Tio? ›
Tío/Tía. How do you say it? _“_Tio/Tia” What does it mean and how is it used? While these literally mean “uncle,” and “aunt,” they're also used informally to generally refer to another person.Why do Spanish people always say vale? ›
It's used as a way of agreeing or affirming what someone has said. (“We're meeting at 11am tomorrow, vale?” or “Call me later to organize that.” Vale, I'll call you.) After a while in Spain you'll notice that people tend to use it twice in reply (vale, vale) which is endearing!Why do people say vale? ›
What does VALE mean? "Vale"is Latin for "Goodbye". VALE means farewell, or goodbye in Latin.Does vale mean yes? ›
Okay, or wait shall I say…. Vale!! Means okay.What does yo tu el ella mean? ›
Yo – I. 2. Tú – singular You. 3. Él – He; Ella – She.Does nosotros mean they? ›
nosotros, nosotras (we)
Nosotros is masculine and is used to refer to a group of men only or a group mixed of men and women. (Even if there are 99 women and 1 man, still use the masculine form.) • Nosotras is feminine and is only used when the entire group is female.
|Subject Pronoun||Present Tense of Decir||Meaning|
|él/ella/usted||dice||he/she says/tells, you (formal) say/tell|
|vosotros/as||decís||you all (Spain) say/tell|
|ellos/ellas/ustedes||dicen||they/you all say/tell|
|mejor dicho||or rather|
|he dicho||I've said|
|como dice el dicho||as the saying goes|
|ha dicho||he's said he's told|
|han dicho||you've said|
Cousin is translated in Spanish by...
La prima (f) Cousin.
Etymology. Borrowed from Italian primo (“first”).Does Primo mean cousin? ›
prima [ˈprimu , ˈprima] masculine noun, feminine noun. cousin.